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Emma Hardinge Britten

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Emma was an English advocate for the early modern Spiritualist movement.  Although, women were admonished to refrain from expressing opinions, especially in public during the Victorian era, Emma developed a reputation for apparent abilities as a spiritual medium.


Britten railed against the hypocrisy and corruption of the church, criticizing church officials for taking advantage of the poor, oppressing women, and offering forgiveness for heinous moral transgressions. She became a central figure of the early Spiritualism.

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